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Our Top 10 Resolutions: Eat Smart to Extend Your
1/2/2006
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The “New Year’s resolution” may be a cliché, but focused goals can help shape your future

by Craig Weatherby and Randy Hartnell


We’d like to take the occasion of the arrival of the New Year to offer some suggestions based on last year’s most important research findings and health books.


Many of our ideas come from research we reported on in 2005, much of which supports contention made in the latest books by Drs. Nick Perricone, M.D. and Andrew Weil, M.D. These two iconoclastic medical commentators offer distinctly different but largely overlapping perspectives.


Both doctors advocate a holistic approach that takes into account the profound influence of nutrition on human health.  And both focus on oxidative stress and inflammation as slow, silent enemies of human health.


And, all of our Resolution Suggestions relate to reducing the ill effects of six overlapping, mutually reinforcing engines of premature aging and degenerative disease:

  • Overweight
  • Sedentariness
  • Chronically high blood sugar
  • Silent inflammation
  • Excessive oxidative stress
  • Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio imbalance

A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that these interlocking phenomena promote a cluster of six clinical symptoms referred to as Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X:

  • Central obesity (excessive fat around the abdomen)
  • Blood fat imbalances that foster plaque buildup in artery walls
  • High blood pressure
  • Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance (poor blood sugar control)
  • Pro-thrombotic blood status (excessively “sticky”, clot-prone blood)
  • Pro-inflammatory blood status (e.g., elevated C-reactive protein)

In turn, Metabolic Syndrome promotes or exacerbates three of the four leading causes of death in the U.S:


1) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

2) Cancer

3) Stroke


The fourth leading cause of death—Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease—is usually caused by smoking, but may also be exacerbated by Metabolic Syndrome.


The set of symptoms that defines Metabolic Syndrome also plays a key role in causing three major afflictions of aging. Rates of the first two conditions, which can be fatal, are increasing very rapidly in the U.S.:

  • Diabetes (which promotes CVD, nerve damage and eye problems)
  • Alzheimer’s and Age Related Cognitive Decline (i.e., senility)
  • Age Related Macular Degeneration and Cataracts.

Our Top 10 Resolution Suggestions

These are our suggested diet-and-health Resolutions for 2006. If you have any special health conditions that may affect the appropriateness of any of these ideas, please consult your doctor.


1) For Healthy Protein, Think Marine and Bean

Among protein sources, fish and beans appear to offer the healthiest choices. Fish offers “complete” protein—that is, it contains all eight of the amino acids the body needs to build protein.


When combined with whole grains, beans provide virtually fat-free high quality protein.  And, contrary to long-standing myth, complementary protein sources don’t need to be consumed at the same meal for the body to use their amino acids to build protein.


Weight control

Being overweight in middle age has long-term implications for quality of life. The authors of a 2003 Chicago-based study followed 6,766 middle-aged men and women for 26 years, when they were 65 years and older people. The researchers came to this sobering conclusion: “A higher BMI [body mass index] in middle age is associated with a lesser quality of life in older age. Preventive measures may lessen the burden of disease and impaired quality of life associated with excess weight.”


Weight control is largely a function of the number of calories consumed and burned, but making smart food choices can enhance appetite and weight control.


Protein, like fat, is satiating, but it contains only half as many calories ounce for ounce. Fish and beans are almost certainly the best protein sources for the purposes of weight control.


The marine omega-3s in fish decelerate oxidation/inflammation-driven aging and aid weight control. To learn about the weight control properties of omega-3s, click here and here.


Beans’ healthy balance of fats and their antioxidant phytoceuticals make them forceful anti-aging foods, and they are the best food sources of two potent weight control aids:

  • Fiber-like carbohydrates called resistant starches (RS) increase the rate at which the body burns (oxidizes) body fat, do not cause unhealthful spikes in blood sugar levels, and prevent other foods in a meal from causing them. And, eating just a palm full of beans or chickpeas will actually prevent sugar spikes from other, higher-glycemic foods in the meal.  Eating RS may even improve insulin sensitivity over time, based on the results of one small trial.
  • Like omega-3s, RS also causes they body to burn more fat, for up to 24 hours.
  • Beans contain so-called “starch-blockers”, which hinder the enzyme (amylase) that digests starches.  Note: Measurable weight loss resulting from dietary amylase inhibitors has been only confirmed in clinical trials testing supplements containing purified phaseamolin: an amylase inhibitor extracted from white kidney beans.

Heart health

The heart healthy properties of both fish and beans are well-documented, with seafood offering the strongest protection of the two categories of food, thanks to the multiple cardiac benefits of its omega-3 fatty acids. Beans are very good sources of cholesterol-lowering fiber.


Cancer protection

As we will report in more detail next issue, a new analysis of 63 prior studies indicates that people who consume 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D3 daily cut their risk of developing certain common cancers—including colon, breast, and ovarian cancer—by up to 50 percent. This dosage, whose safety has been thoroughly assessed and confirmed by the National Academy of Sciences, is more than double the current RDA of 400 IUs per day.


There are two sources of vitamin D: sunlight and foods. Judging by the results of our own lab tests versus the results of USDA tests, wild sockeye salmon may contain more vitamin D than any other whole food (687 IU per 3.5 ounce serving), followed, among our fish selection, by albacore tuna (544 IU), silver salmon (430 IU), halibut (276), king salmon (236 IU), sardines (222 IU), and sablefish (182).


2) Cut Back on Refined Carbs

By now, we’re all tired of hearing it, and the low-carb/Atkins products from big supermarket brands faded fast, but it remains true that sugars and white flour foods promote diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and the silent inflammation that fuels aging.


3) Go Nuts and Get Seedy

Nuts and seeds offer fair balances of omega-3 and omega-6 fats, and are good, satiating sources of protein and fiber proven to aid weight control and reduced the risk of heart disease. Seek out sesame seeds, which are now proven to inhibit inflammation in a big way, and appear to promote fat-burning.


4) Follow the Rainbow

To counter the aging-accelerating effects of free radicals, fix your dietary focus on antioxidant-rich plant foods.  Since many antioxidants are also pigments, vibrant red, yellow, green, purple, and blue fruits and vegetables fit the bill best.


In terms of weight control support, grapefruit’s folk reputation as a helpful food is now supported by the positive results of a small clinical trial. And, Army research published in 1997 showed that the antioxidant- and fiber-rich pith (fuzzy white layer) just under the skin and between the section of oranges curbs appetite and suppresses hunger levels for up to four hours after being consumed.


The findings of numerous population studies indicate that diets high in fruits and vegetables yield reduced risks of cancer, heart disease, and obesity.


5) Spice up Your Life

When it comes to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory power, fragrant, colorful herbs and spices beat even the best fruits and vegetables. Ounce for ounce, most contain far higher levels of antioxidants than any vegetables or fruits, yet contribute almost no calories.


Many seasonings also offer other preventive-health phytoceuticals. For example, cinnamon helps control blood sugar levels, turmeric’s yellow pigment (curcumin) helps control blood sugar and prevent cancer, chilies aid weight control, and rosemary and thyme provide brain cells with powerful protection against oxidation.


6) Cook in Mono for Sound Health

By now, almost everyone has heard of the heart-disease and cancer prevention powers attributed to the so-called Mediterranean Diet, which is high in fish, vegetables, and olive oil. Until recently, all of the benefits of olive oil have been linked to its unusually high monounsaturated fat content.


New research suggests that the extremely potent tyrosol-type antioxidants abundant in extra virgin olive oil (but not in lesser grades) may be as big a factor in its heart health benefits. To see our report on this new research, click here.


It also makes sense to favor cooking oils high in monounsaturated fats—macadamia nut and extra virgin olive—to help redress the pro-inflammatory excess of omega-6 fats found in most Americans’ diets.

7) Go Whole Grain to Slow Aging and Weight Gain, Enhance Heart Health

Foods made from refined, white flour fuel two key engines of aging—insulin resistance and inflammation.  Diets high in whole grains are also proven to help curb weight gain.  The fiber in whole grains —especially the soluble kind in oats and barley—helps improve consumers’ blood-cholesterol profiles.  Oats are already the subject of an approved heart-health claim, and on the day after Christmas of 2005, the Food and Drug Administration announced that the labels on whole grain barley and products containing it will be allowed to state that they may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).


And, to many observers’ surprise, recent research shows that common whole grains—especially wheat, corn, buckwheat—offer an unexpected abundance of anti-aging antioxidants.


8) Tea and (a little) Dark Chocolate on Top

Both tea and chocolate are rich in disease-preventive antioxidants and other phytoceuticals, so a little goes a long way.


Tea’s catechin-class antioxidants improve cardiovascular health, curb several common cancers’ chances of survival and appear to aid weight control.


The cocoa abundant in dark chocolate (i.e., bars containing 60 percent of more cocoa solids) is uniquely rich in close antioxidant cousins to tea catechins. These compounds are shown to enhance key vascular variables important to maintaining good cardiovascular health.


9) Don’t Disdain (Organic, Cultured) Dairy

Milk is much maligned, but it’s highly nutritious stuff, and most of the many clinical studies performed to date support a role for milk products in weight control.


Organic milk is your best choice, as it typically contains 70 percent more omega-3s than non-organic milk and has a healthier ratio of omega-3s to omega-6s (Note: The omega-3s content fluctuates by season and feed type, and is still fairly minor compared to the amounts in flaxseed or hemp seed).


While its short-chain plant omega-3s are not as good as the long-chain marine kind, it makes sense to seek them out whenever you’re not eating fish. And among organic milk products, “cultured” ones like yogurt and kefir offer beneficial “probiotic” bacteria that enhance overall health and help keep bad microbial bugs at bay.


10) Exercise Your Right to be Healthy

Yes, it’s a cliché, but exercise is the indispensable ingredient in any list of resolutions. If you’re already doing it, remember that it takes both kinds—aerobic exercise (jogging, walking, swimming, etc.) and resistance exercise (weights, machines, isometrics, pushups, sit-ups)—to achieve optimal weight control and preventive health results.



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Fruits

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Nuts and seeds

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Whole Grains

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Spices

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  • Devi BA, Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves to diabetic rats. Effect on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetic liver and kidney. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1231-3.
  • Dickerson C. Neuropeptide regulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses. J Leukoc Biol 1998 May;63(5):602-5.
  • Edwards SJ, et al. Spicy meal disturbs sleep: an effect of thermoregulation? Int J Psychophysiol 1992 Sep;13(2):97-100.
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.
  • Kobayashi A. Capsaicin activates heat loss and heat production simultaneously and independently in rats. Am J Physiol 1998 Jul;275(1 Pt 2):R92-8.Nelson AG. The effect of capsaicin on the thermal and metabolic responses of men exposed to 38 degrees C for 120 minutes. Wilderness Environ Med 2000 Fall;11(3):152-6.
  • Kwak JY. A capsaicin-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, reduces inflammation-induced hyperalgesic responses in the rat: evidence for an endogenous capsaicin-like substance. Neuroscience 1998 Sep;86(2):619-26.
  • Lim K, Yoshioka M, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Dietary red pepper ingestion increases carbohydrate oxidation at rest and during exercise in runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Mar;29(3):355-61.
  • Lopez-Carrillo L, Avila M, Dubrow R. Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: A case-control study. Amer J Epidem 1994;139:263–71.
  • Matsumoto T, Miyawaki C, Ue H, Yuasa T, Miyatsuji A, Moritani T. Effects of capsaicin-containing yellow curry sauce on sympathetic nervous system activity and diet-induced thermogenesis in lean and obese young women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2000 Dec;46(6):309-15.
  • Mitchell JA. Role of nitric oxide in the dilator actions of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the rabbit coronary circulation. Neuropeptides 1997 Aug;31(4):333-8.
  • Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, Tsukagawa M, Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Sashida Y, Takahashi K, Kawada T, Nakagawa K, Kitahara M. Curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) suppress an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):959-63.
  • Ohnuki K, Niwa S, Maeda S, Inoue N, Yazawa S, Fushiki T. CH-19 sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, increased body temperature and oxygen consumption in humans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Sep;65(9):2033-6.
  • Pacach AS. The Effect of Capsaicin on Orally-Measured Body Temperature. www.usc.edu/CSSF/History/2004/Projects/J1421.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2005.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.
  • Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: Carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxic 1996;34:313–6.
  • Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Nov;266(1-2):151-9.
  • Yoshioka M, Doucet E, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Tremblay A. Combined effects of red pepper and caffeine consumption on 24 h energy balance in subjects given free access to foods. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb;85(2):203-11.
  • Yoshioka M, Imanaga M, Ueyama H, Yamane M, Kubo Y, Boivin A, St-Amand J, Tanaka H, Kiyonaga A. Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):991-5.
  • Yoshioka M, Lim K, Kikuzato S, Kiyonaga A, Tanaka H, Shindo M, Suzuki M. Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1995 Dec;41(6):647-56.
  • Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Drapeau V, Dionne I, Doucet E, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br J Nutr. 1999 Aug;82(2):115-23.
  • Yoshioka M, St-Pierre S, Suzuki M, Tremblay A. Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women. Br J Nutr. 1998 Dec;80(6):503-10.



Vegetables

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  • Bianchini F, Vainio H. Isothiocyanates in cancer prevention. Drug Metab Rev. 2004 Oct;36(3-4):655-67. Review.
  • Brandi G, Schiavano GF, Zaffaroni N, De Marco C, Paiardini M, Cervasi B, Magnani M. Mechanisms of Action and Antiproliferative Properties of Brassica oleracea Juice in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1503-9.
  • Campbell JK, Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Boileau TW, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3486S-3492S. Review.
  • Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.
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  • Han B, Jaurequi J, Tang BW, Nimni ME. Proanthocyanidin: a natural crosslinking reagent for stabilizing collagen matrices. J Biomed Mater Res. 2003 Apr 1;65A(1):118-24.
  • Holick CN, Michaud DS, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Mayne ST, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Sep 15;156(6):536-47.
  • Hou DX, Kai K, Li JJ, Lin S, Terahara N, Wakamatsu M, Fujii M, Young MR, Colburn N. Anthocyanidins inhibit activator protein 1 activity and cell transformation: structure-activity relationship and molecular mechanisms. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jan;25(1):29-36. Epub 2003 Sep 26.
  • Hou DX. Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins. Curr Mol Med. 2003 Mar;3(2):149-59. Review.
  • Ito Y, Gajalakshmi KC, Sasaki R, Suzuki K, Shanta V. A study on serum carotenoid levels in breast cancer patients of Indian women in Chennai (Madras), India. J Epidemiol. 1999 Nov;9(5):306-14.
  • Keck AS, Finley JW. Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. Integr Cancer Ther. 2004 Mar;3(1):5-12.
  • Krinsky NI, Landrum JT, Bone RA. Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003;23:171-201. Epub 2003 Feb 27. Review.
  • Krinsky NI. Micronutrients and their influence on mutagenicity and malignant transformation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 May 28;686:229-42. Review.
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF, Griel AE, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med. 2002 Dec 30;113 Suppl 9B:71S-88S. Review.
  • La Vecchia C, Tavani A. Fruit and vegetables, and human cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Feb;7(1):3-8. Review.
  • Lamson DW, Brignall MS. Antioxidants and cancer, part 3: quercetin. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun;5(3):196-208. Review.
  • Lee EH, Faulhaber D, Hanson KM, Ding W, Peters S, Kodali S, Granstein RD. Dietary lutein reduces ultraviolet radiation-induced inflammation and immunosuppression. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Feb;122(2):510-7.
  • Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004 Dec;134(12 Suppl):3479S-3485S. Review.
  • Mazza G; Miniati E. Small fruits. In Anthocyanins in Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains; 1993; pp 85-130. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • McBride J. High-ORAC foods may slow aging. USDA Agricultural Research Service Web Site. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/1999/990208.htm
  • Micozzi MS, Beecher GR, Taylor PR, Khachik F. Carotenoid analyses of selected raw and cooked foods associated with a lower risk for cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990 Feb 21;82(4):282-5. Erratum in: J Natl Cancer Inst 1990 Apr 18;82(8):715.
  • Moeller SM, Jacques PF, Blumberg JB. The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5 Suppl):522S-527S. Review.
  • Robert AM, Tixier JM, Robert L, Legeais JM, Renard G. Effect of procyanidolic oligomers on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001 May;49(4):298-304.
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  • Schmidt K. Antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene: effects on immunocompetence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):383S-385S.
  • Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, et al. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. JAMA. 1994;272:1413–1420.
  • Seeram NP, Zhang Y, Nair MG. Inhibition of proliferation of human cancer cells and cyclooxygenase enzymes by anthocyanidins and catechins. Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(1):101-6.
  • Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Talalay P. Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 May;10(5):501-8.
  • Spencer JP, Schroeter H, Rechner AR, Rice-Evans C. Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2001 Dec;3(6):1023-39. Review.
  • Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Oct;96(10):1027-39. Review.
  • Tan WF, Lin LP, Li MH, Zhang YX, Tong YG, Xiao D, Ding J. Quercetin, a dietary-derived flavonoid, possesses antiangiogenic potential. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 17;459(2-3):255-62.
  • The Polyphenol Flavonoids Content and Anti-Oxidant Activiites of Various Juices:  A Comparative Study- The Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, The Rappaport Family Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
  • Toniolo P, Van Kappel AL, Akhmedkhanov A, Ferrari P, Kato I, Shore RE, Riboli E. Serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 15;153(12):1142-7.
  • van Doorn HE, van der Kruk GC, van Holst GJ. Large scale determination of glucosinolates in brussels sprouts samples after degradation of endogenous glucose. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):1029-34.
  • Vita JA. Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial and platelet function. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1 Suppl):292S-297S. Review.
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  • Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomas-Barberan FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS. Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2004 Summer;59(3):113-22. Review.
  • Zhang LX et al. Carotenoids enhance hap junctional communication and inhibit lipid peroxidation in C3H/10T1/2 cells: Relationship to their cancer chemopreventive action. Carcinogenesis 12:2109-2114 (1991).
  • Ziegler RG. Vegetables, fruits, and carotenoids and the risk of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):251S-259S. Review.
  • Hensrud DD. Diet and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;20(2):119-24.
  • Slavin JL. Dietary fiber and body weight. Nutrition. 2005 Mar;21(3):411-8.



Dairy

  • Barba G, Troiano E, Russo P, Venezia A, Siani A. Inverse association between body mass and frequency of milk consumption in children. r J Nutr. 2005 Jan;93(1):15-9.
  • Barr SI. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):245S-248S. Review.
  • Bianchi G, Marzocchi R, Agostini F, Marchesini G. Update on nutritional supplementation with branched-chain amino acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Jan;8(1):83-7. Review.
  • Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Feb 15; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Carruth BR, Skinner JD. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in modeCW Rating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Apr;25(4):559-66.
  • Chan GM, Hoffman K, McMurry M. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr. 1995 Apr;126(4):551-6.
  • Cheirsilp B, Shimizu H, Shioya S. Enhanced kefiran production by mixed culture of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biotechnol. 2003 Jan 9;100(1):43-53.
  • Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Barger-Lux MJ, Rafferty K, Hinders S. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4635-8.
  • Davies, KM, Heaney, RP, Recker, RR, et al (2000) Calcium intake and body weight J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 85,4635-4638.
  • Dewhurst RJ, Fisher WJ, Tweed JKS, Wilkins R J (2003). Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science (volume 86 pages 2598-2611).
  • Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic agents.JAMA 1996;275:870–6.
  • Frengova GI, Simova ED, Beshkova DM, Simov ZI. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria of kefir grains. Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Sep-Oct;57(9-10):805-10.
  • Gluck U, Gebbers JO. Ingested probiotics reduce nasal colonization with pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):517-20.
  • Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, McCabe GP, Eagan MS, Peacock M, Teegarden D. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):751-6.
  • Heaney RP, Davies KM, Barger-Lux MJ. Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):152S-155S. Review.
  • Heaney, RP. (2003) Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight J Nutr. 133,268s-270s
  • Hilton E, Isenberg HD, Alperstein P, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:353–7.
  • Kailasapathy K, Chin J. Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000 Feb;78(1):80-8. Review.
  • Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.
  • Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Weaver CM, Teegarden D. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):754-60.
  • Mack DR, Lebel S. Role of probiotics in the modulation of intestinal infections and inflammation.  Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;20(1):22-6.
  • Marteau P, Seksik P, Lepage P, Dore J. Cellular and physiological effects of probiotics and prebiotics. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004 Oct;4(8):889-96. Review.
  • Morris K, Wang Y, Kim SY, Moustaid-Moussa N. Dietary and hormonal regulation of the mammalian fatty acid synthase gene. In: Moustaid-Moussa N, Berdanier CD, eds. Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Health and Disease. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001.
  • Mullally MM, Meisel H, FitzGerald RJ. Identification of a novel angiotensin-l-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide corresponding to a tryptic fragment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. FEBS Lett. 1997;402:99-101.
  • Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [Immunostimulating and anti-carcinogenic activity of the normal intestinal lactoflora] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2004;(4):39-43, 109. Review. Russian.
  • Nikolaeva TN, Zorina VV, Bondarenko VM. [The role of cytokines in the immunoreactivity modulation with bacteria of the Lactobacillus genus] Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2004 Nov-Dec;(6):101-6. Review. Russian.
  • Noverr MC, Huffnagle GB. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut? Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Review.
  • Papakonstantinou E, Flatt WP, Huth PJ, Harris RB. High dietary calcium reduces body fat content, digestibility of fat, and serum vitamin D in rats. Obes Res. 2003 Mar;11(3):387-94.
  • Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Aguero G, Gobbato N. Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J Dairy Sci. 1995 Jul;78(7):1597-606. Review.
  • Perdigon G, Maldonado Galdeano C, Valdez JC, Medici M. Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with the gut immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;56 Suppl 4:S21-6.
  • Perdigon G, Vintini E, Alvarez S, Medina M, Medici M. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci. 1999 Jun;82(6):1108-14.
  • Pihlanto-Leppala A, Koskinen P, Piilola K, Tupasela T, Korhonen H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digests: concentration and characterization of active peptides. J Dairy Res. 2000;67:53-64.
  • Reid G, Millsap K, Bruce AW. Implantation of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus into vagina. Lancet 1994;344:1229.
  • Robertson J, Fanning C, (2004). Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Organic and Conventional Milk. Summary report. Accessed online December 29, 2005 at http://www.abdn.ac.uk/mediareleases/release.php?id=82
  • Shah NP. Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overview. Br J Nutr. 2000;84(suppl 1):S3-S10.
  • Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Dec;103(12):1626-31.
  • Teegarden D, Zemel MB. Dairy product components and weight regulation: symposium overview. J Nutr. 2003;133:243S-244S.
  • Teegarden D. Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass. J Nutr. 133, 1:249S-251S, 2003. www.jacn.org
  • Thoreux K, Schmucker DL. Kefir milk enhances intestinal immunity in young but not old rats. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):807-12.
  • Wang KY, Li SN, Liu CS, Perng DS, Su YC, Wu DC, Jan CM, Lai CH, Wang TN, Wang WM. Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):737-41.
  • Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Takahashi N, Miyaji K, Oshida K, Hiramatsu A, Iwatsuki K, Kokubo S, Hosono A. Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Jul;86(7):2452-61.
  • Zemel MB, Miller SL. Dietary calcium and dairy modulation of adiposity and obesity risk. Nutr Rev. 2004 Apr;62(4):125-31. Review.
  • Zemel MB, Shi H, Zemel PC, DiRienzo D. Calcium and calcium-rich dairy products reduce body fat. FASEB J 1999 12:LB211(abs).
  • Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, Morris K, Campbell P. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004 Apr;12(4):582-90.
  • Zemel MB. Nutritional and endocrine modulation of intracellular calcium: implications in obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Nov;188(1-2):129-36. Review.
  • Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):146S-151S. Review.
  • Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):907S-912S. Review.



Tea

  • Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):521-8. Review.
  • Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: part II. review of anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):639-52.
  • Hernandez Figueroa TT, Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. [The green tea, a good choice for cardiovascular disease prevention?] Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Dec;54(4):380-94. Spanish.



Chocolate

  • For chocolate references, see http://newsletter.vitalchoice.com/e_article000503445.cfm?x=b61yNVj,b1kJpvRw,w<.

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