ARTICLES BY TOPIC  
 
 
Premium Organic Herbs and Spices
11/14/2005
Print Share E-Mail Google+ Twitter Facebook
We’re bringing the best the world has to offer, all certified Organic and Kosher
by Craig Weatherby


Fans of our Organic Salmon Marinade herb-spice blend have asked us to expand our seasoning offerings. While inclined to implement this good idea, we saw no point in selling herbs and spices of unremarkable quality, so we looked long and hard before selecting our 10 new seasonings.

Each of our premium quality herbs and spices are fresh, flavorful and rich in beneficial “phytoceutical” compounds.  Recent research reveals that common herbs and spices are the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer champions of the food world. In fact, each piquant pinch of oregano, turmeric or cinnamon packs the preventive-health punch of a serving of vegetables or fruits.

All our new seasonings are certified organic—by Quality Assurance International and the USDA—and certified Kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU).

And if, like most folks, your pantry harbors some old, faded herbs and spices, our Herbs and Spices Medley package offers a great way to clean out your cupboard and upgrade your seasonings scene in one fell swoop.

This smart, simple solution brings you all 10 seasonings—plus our popular Organic Salmon Marinade mix—at a substantial savings.  There's no risk, as each one is backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

To learn more about the amazing array of health benefits our new herbs and spices offer, see “Common seasonings bring uncommon health benefits”, just below the capsule herb descriptions and photos.

Vital Choice Organic Herbs and Spices: A Tasty 10

Let’s take a closer look at the 10 certified-organic, certified-kosher herbs and spices we’ve just added to the growing list of Vital Choice offerings.

Basil
The word "basil" derives from the ancient Greek word basilikohn, which means “royal". Our sweet Italian-style basil adds regal depth and character to chicken, vegetables, fish, stews, soups, and salads. Basil is rich in antioxidant phenols and carotenoids important to preventive health, and is a good source of heart-healthy magnesium and vitamin B6.

medium-chopped 0.5 oz — product of Egypt

Bay Leaves
Bay trees are close botanical cousins to cinnamon, sassafras, and avocado, and their leaves feature a correspondingly complex blend of fragrances and flavors ranging from balsam to citrus.

We offer the finest bay leaves in the world, which grow wild on the tall hills of western Turkey, and boast a deep, complex, unequalled flavor.  Among herbs, bay leaf ranks near the very top of the antioxidant-capacity scale.

whole leaf 0.15 oz — product of Turkey

Black Pepper
Since ancient times, black pepper has been the spice of choice, and our premium Indian pepper is right for any recipe.  Black pepper enhances digestion, stimulates the breakdown of fat cells, increases absorption of various beneficial nutrients and phytoceuticals, and exerts substantial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-cancer effects.

1.9 oz coarse-ground — product of India

Cayenne Pepper
Like all chili peppers, the cayenne pepper is a member of the Capsicum family of vegetables, which get their heat from a phytoceutical compound called capsaicin. This popular member of the chili family gets its name from Cayenne Island in French Guiana, which was once the main source.  Cayenne pepper’s capsaicin prompts burning of body fat, inhibits inflammation, retards the growth of certain cancer cells, enhances digestion, lowers blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and helps prevent dangerous clotting.

1.8 oz fine-ground — product of India

Cinnamon
Our premium Korintje cinnamon comes from the southwest coast of Sumatra where cassia trees—whose bark provides cinnamon—grow wild on mountain slopes. We chose Indonesian Korintje for Vital Choice customers because it boasts a smoother flavor with less “bite” than the more common East Asian variety.  Cinnamon exerts strong antioxidant effects, helps normalize blood sugar levels, reduces inflammation, inhibits pathogenic bacteria and fungi, and boosts key brain functions.

2.1 oz fine-ground — product of Indonesia

Ginger
Ginger evokes fond childhood memories of ginger ale, bread, or snaps.  Our powdered Indonesian ginger is ideal for baking everything from gingersnaps, gingerbread, and molasses cookies to fruit breads, coffee cakes, pies, and muffins.  Ginger is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent, rich in antioxidants that protect cells from free radicals. It also inhibits the growth of colorectal cancers and is a clinically proven anti-nausea remedy.

1.3 oz fine-ground — product of Indonesia

Oregano
In Greek, oregano means mountain joy, and indeed, the variety known as “Greek” oregano (Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum) is the best-tasting of all. Prized for its peppery leaves, Greek oregano adds a unique flavor note to tomato sauces and diverse Mediterranean dishes. It is both sweet and savory, and enhances meats, eggs, soups, and vegetables.  Greek oregano also offers near-unsurpassed antioxidant potential, with a free radical-scavenging capacity much higher than that of vitamin E.

0.4 oz medium-chopped — product of Turkey

Rosemary
Rosemary’s heady, “piney” aroma makes it the perfect seasoning for grilled or broiled fish and meats—especially lamb—as well as omelets and frittatas, chicken, and tomato sauces or soups.  Rosemary’s phenolic compounds increase circulation to the brain—thereby improving concentration and memory—reduce systemic inflammation, and boost circulation. Rosemary is also proven to protect the liver, inhibit tumor activity, enhance digestion, and reduce the severity of asthma attacks.

chopped 0.9 oz — product of Turkey


Sea Salt
In a sense, all salt is “sea salt”, since the salt mined from underground caverns is simply the remnant of ancient seas whose water evaporated long ago. However, most commercial table salt contains anti-coagulants (up to two percent by weight) that leave a bitter aftertaste. We tried many sea salts from around the world before settling on the pleasing tang of this all-American product.  Used in moderation, sea salt is a delicious, healthful condiment.

medium-grain 4 oz — product of USA


Turmeric
Turmeric is the signature ingredient that gives Indian curry powders their yellow hue, as well as many of their documented health attributes.  Curcumin—the yellow pigment in turmeric—is rich in extraordinarily potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer compounds called curcuminoids. The results of hundreds of studies confirm that turmeric’s curcuminoids offer substantial preventive and therapeutic potential related to Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory disorders, and certain cancers.

fine-ground 1.4 oz — product of India

Herb and Spice Medley
Save with this package featuring all 10 of our premium herbs and spices, which includes a free bonus package of our popular Organic Salmon Marinade!

Common seasonings bring uncommon health benefits
It turns out that spices and herbs are the spice of life, at least in terms of preventive health, and some therapeutic applications.  Scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and researchers at Tufts University have published research showing that many common culinary herbs and spices possess antioxidant capacities higher than those reported for the berries and vegetables long considered the top antioxidant champs.

Many of the strongest antioxidant compounds in culinary herbs belong to the phenol family, which includes the flavonoids and flavonols that give berries, tea, and cocoa their preventive health power.

Researchers continue to confirm these preventive-health benefits, and report that some offer substantial therapeutic potential. The results of controlled clinical studies show that the strong anti-inflammatory effects of ginger, chili peppers, and turmeric help ease arthritis symptoms, and that cinnamon helps diabetics control blood sugar very substantially.  Here’s what the available research shows:

Basil
  • The primary phenols in basil (orientin and vicenin) protect cell structures and chromosomes from radiation and free radicals.
  • Another phenol in basil, called eugenol (AKA “clove oil”), blocks the inflammatory cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes also inhibited by synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen).
  • Basil is rich in beta-carotene, which protects the lining of blood vessels from free radical damage and helps prevent them from oxidizing cholesterol in the blood, thus inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis and reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • As a good source of vitamin B6, basil may also help reduce blood levels of homocysteine, excess amounts of which damage blood vessel walls.
  • Basil is a good source of magnesium, which relaxes blood vessels, improves blood flow, and reduces the risk of irregular heart rhythms or spasms.
Bay Leaves
Bay leaf ranks very high (number four) on the antioxidant capacity scale—just below oregano—which makes it one of the most potent antioxidant foods known.

Black Pepper
  • The taste of black pepper signals the stomach to increase secretion of the hydrochloric acid needed to digest proteins and other relatively hard-to-digest food components. This keeps food from sitting in the stomach too long, which leads to heartburn or indigestion, or passing into the intestines incompletely digested, where it becomes a food source for unfriendly bacteria that produce gas, irritation, or worse.
  • The outer layer of the peppercorn stimulates the breakdown of fat cells, making black pepper a minor aid to weight control.
  • Black pepper is rich in piperine: a pungent alkaloid that exerts substantial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anti-cancer effects. Piperine protects against oxidative damage by inhibiting or quenching free radicals and reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radicals.
  • Piperine also enhances the body’s absorption of several key micronutrients and phytoceuticals, including beta-carotene, coenzyme Q-10, curcumin (the potent anti-inflammatory antioxidant in turmeric), and EGCG (the potent anti-inflammatory antioxidant polyphenol in tea).
Cayenne Pepper
  • As a “thermogenic” agent, capsaicin helps to increase overall metabolic activity, which prompts the body to burn stored fat. The results of several studies show that capsaicin is a substantial aid to weight control.
  • Capsaicin inhibits inflammation and growth of certain cancer cells by blocking activation of key nuclear transcription factors (AP-1 and NF-kappa B). Counter to intuition, it also enhances digestion and specifically inhibits intestinal inflammation (colitis, IBD, Crohn’s disease).
  • Capsaicin eases muscle pain, cluster-type headaches, and arthritis pain, in part by dilating and relaxing blood vessel walls. This increases oxygen supplies to all parts of the body, and signals the brain to release neuropeptides that inhibit pain and inflammation and create a sense of well-being.
  • Capsaicin clears and prevents sinus congestion.
  • Capsaicin lowers cholesterol and triglyceride levels and helps prevent strokes by thinning blood and dilating blood vessels.
  • Capsaicin protects cellular DNA against carcinogens
Cinnamon
  • Cinnamon may significantly help people with adult onset diabetes normalize their blood sugar levels. In fact, less than half a teaspoon per day of cinnamon reduces blood sugar levels. Just one gram per day (approximately ¼ to ½ teaspoon) yields a 20 percent drop in blood sugar, and reduces cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well. Cinnamon works by stimulating insulin receptors and inhibits an enzyme that inactivates them, thereby increasing cells’ ability to use glucose.
  • Cinnamon reduces inflammation in two ways: by inhibiting the release of arachidonic acid— an inflammatory omega-6 fatty acid—from platelet membranes and by reducing production of an inflammatory prostaglandin (messenger) called thromboxane A2. These properties help reduce the tendency of blood platelets to clump together and reduce blood flow.
  • Cinnamon’s essential oils help stop the growth of bacteria and fungi. It even inhibits strains of the infectious yeast Candida albicans that are resistant to the common anti-fungal medication fluconazole.
  • Cinnamon is a potent antioxidant. In a test comparing cinnamon with anise, ginger, licorice, mint, nutmeg, vanilla and the synthetic food preservatives BHA and BHT, cinnamon prevented oxidation more effectively than anything but mint.
  • The scent of cinnamon has been shown to enhance the brain’s cognitive functions, including attention, memory, and visual-motor speed.
  • Cinnamon is prized in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine for its “warming” qualities, and is used to provide relief from colds or flu. When you feel either coming on, try sipping a tea of cinnamon bark and ginger.
Ginger
  • Ginger has a long traditional reputation—now clinically proven—as an anti-nausea remedy effective in treating both motion and morning sickness. Ginger also reduces excess stomach acid and stomach upset.
  • As an anti-inflammatory agent, ginger is as effective as synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin and Vioxx, but it produces none of their adverse side effects. (Silent, chronic inflammation underlies or promotes major diseases, including certain cancers, heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and diabetes.) Ginger safely inhibits key pro-inflammatory enzymes (5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2).
  • Ginger is rich in potent antioxidants that protect cells from free radicals that can destroy their energy-producing capacity and induce inflammation. In fact, ginger bests curcumin (from turmeric), vitamin E and the potent food preservative BHA as a scavenger of the highly damaging peroxide radical.
  • Ginger boosts the activity of three key internal antioxidants: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. One of ginger’s phenolic constituents—6-gingerol—significantly reduces production of nitric oxide: a molecule that rapidly forms a very damaging free radical called peroxynitrite. A Japanese drug company has even patented an anti-inflammatory drug derived from the aromatic compounds in ginger (gingerols). Ounce for ounce, dried ginger offers more anti-oxidant power than fresh root, and it retains all of its antioxidant activity even after being boiled for 30 minutes.
  • Ginger is rich in a potent protein-digesting enzyme called zingibain, which dissolves the “immune complexes” that precipitate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Gingerols, the main active components in ginger, inhibit the growth of colorectal cancers.
Oregano
Among all the culinary herbs tested to date, Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum) offers the second-strongest antioxidant potential, with a free radical-scavenging capacity much higher than that of vitamin E.  Oregano gets much of its antioxidant power from a phenol called carvacrol (cymophenol), but it also contains high levels of rosmarinic acid: the healthful antioxidant that abounds in rosemary.

Rosemary
  • In the Middle Ages, rosemary's apparent ability to fortify the memory transformed it into a symbol of fidelity known as the “herb of remembrance”. Today, we know that rosemary’s phenolic compounds increase circulation to the head and brain, thereby improving concentration and memory.
  • The key phenols in rosemary—especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid—modulate the immune system’s production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, peptides (cytokines), and “complement” proteins.
  • Its phenols also account for rosemary’s documented ability to stimulate the immune system safely, boost circulation, relax smooth muscles of the trachea and intestine, protect and stimulate the liver, inhibit tumor activity, enhance digestion, and help reduce the severity of asthma attacks.
Turmeric
  • Curcumin—the pigment that makes turmeric bright yellow—is rich in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer compounds called curcuminoids, which block the inflammatory cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme also inhibited by synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, Vioxx, and Celebrex.  But, unlike synthetic NSAIDS, curcumin and other natural COX-2 inhibitors (e.g., ginger, basil) display no negative side effects.
  • The results of hundreds of studies related to cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and inflammatory disorders like arthritis indicate that turmeric offers unsurpassed preventive health potential in all three areas.  It is believed that the ubiquity of turmeric in the curry-rich Indian diet accounts for the unusually low rates of Alzheimer’s recorded in that country.

Sources
  • Abila B, Richens A, Davies JA. Anticonvulsant effects of extracts of the west African black pepper, Piper guineense. J Ethnopharmacol 1993 Jun;39(2):113-7.
  • Ahn SC, Oh WK, Kim BY, Kang DO, Kim MS, Heo GY, Ahn JS. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on Lck SH2 domain binding to a synthetic phosphopeptide. Planta Med. 2003 Jul;69(7):642-6.
  • Ahsan H, Parveen N, Khan NU, Hadi SM. Pro-oxidant, anti-oxidant and cleavage activities on DNA of curcumin and its derivatives demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Chem Biol Interact 1999 Jul 1;121(2):161-75.
  • Akgul A, Kivanc M. Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi. Int J Food Microbiol 1988 May;6(3):263-8.
  • Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi EB et al. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. East Afr Med J. 2002 Nov;79(11):588-92.
  • Ali BH, Blunden G. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):299-305. Review.
  • al-Sereiti MR, Abu-Amer KM, Sen P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Feb;37(2):124-30. Review.
  • al-Sereiti MR, Abu-Amer KM, Sen P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 1999.
  • Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Schmidt WF, Khan A, Flanagan VP, Schoene NW, Graves DJ. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.
  • Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Schmidt WF, Khan A, Flanagan VP, Schoene NW, Graves DJ. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.
  • Anuradha CV, Ravikumar P. Restoration on tissue antioxidants by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) in alloxan-diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;45(4):408-20.
  • Ao P, Hu S, Zhao A. [Essential oil analysis and trace element study of the roots of Piper nigrum L.]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1998 Jan;23(1):42-3, 63.
  • Arbiser JL, Klauber N, Rohan R, et al. Curcumin is an in vivo inhibitor of angiogenesis. Mol Med 1998 Jun;4(6):376-83.
  • Asai A, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T. Antioxidative effects of turmeric, rosemary and capsicum extracts on membrane phospholipid peroxidation and liver lipid metabolism in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Dec;63(12):2118-22.
  • Badmaev V, Majeed M, Prakash L. Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme Q10 following oral supplementation. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Feb;11(2):109-13.
  • Bagamboula CF, Uyttendaele M, Debevere J. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. J Food Prot 2003 Apr;66(4):668-73.
  • Bagamboula CF, Uyttendaeleand M, Debevere J. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbio 2004 Feb;21 (1):33-42.
  • Ballal RS, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine: update on a new risk factor. Cleve Clin J Med 1997 Nov-1997 Dec 31;64(10):543-9.
  • Bierhaus A, Zhang Y, Quehenberger P, Luther T, Haase M, Muller M, Mackman N, Ziegler R, Nawroth PP. The dietary pigment curcumin reduces endothelial tissue factor gene expression by inhibiting binding of AP-1 to the DNA and activation of NF-kappa B. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Apr;77(4):772-82.
  • Bode A. Ginger is an effective inhibitor of HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma in vivo. paper presented at the Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, Phoenix, AZ, Ocbober 26-3-, 2003.
  • Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2000 Mar;48(3):849-52.
  • Calucci L, Pinzino C, Zandomeneghi M et al. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the free radical and antioxidant contents in nine aromatic herbs and spices. J Agric Food Chem 2003 Feb 12; 51(4):927-34.
  • Chithra V, Leelamma S. Coriandrum sativum changes the levels of lipid peroxides and activity of antioxidant enzymes in experimental animals. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1999 Feb;36(1):59-61.
  • Chithra V, Leelamma S. Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1997;51(2):167-72.
  • Cipriani B, Borsellino G, Knowles H, Tramonti D, Cavaliere F, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Brosnan CF. Curcumin inhibits activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by phosphoantigens and induces apoptosis involving apoptosis-inducing factor and large scale DNA fragmentation. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 15;167(6):3454-62.
  • Cosentino S, Tuberoso CI, Pisano B, Satta M, Mascia V, Arzedi E, Palmas F. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999 Aug;29(2):130-5.
  • Dapkevicius A, van Beek TA, Lelyveld GP, van Veldhuizen A, de Groot A, Linssen JP, Venskutonis R. Isolation and structure elucidation of radical scavengers from Thymus vulgaris leaves. J Nat Prod. 2002 Jun;65(6):892-6.
  • Delaquis PJ, Stanich K, Girard B et al. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. Int J Food Microbiol. 2002 Mar 25;74(1-2):101-9.
  • Deshpande UR, Gadre SG, Raste AS, et al. Protective effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1998 Jun;36(6):573-7.
  • Devasena T, Menon VP. Enhancement of circulatory antioxidants by fenugreek during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys. 2002 Aug;6(4):289-92.
  • Dickerson C. Neuropeptide regulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses. J Leukoc Biol 1998 May;63(5):602-5.
  • Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, et al. Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate 2001 Jun 1;47(4):293-303.
  • Dorman HJ, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 2000 Feb;88(2):308-16.
  • Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K, Holte K, Blomhoff R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5):1286-90.
  • Elgayyar M, Draughon FA, Golden DA, Mount JR. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms. J Food Prot 2001 Jul;64(7):1019-24.
  • Exarchou V, Nenadis N, Tsimidou M, Gerothanassis IP, Troganis A, Boskou D. Antioxidant activities and phenolic composition of extracts from Greek oregano, Greek sage, and summer savory. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Sep 11;50(19):5294-9.
  • Ficker CE, Arnason JT, Vindas PS et al. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts. Mycoses. 2003 Feb;46(1-2):29-37.
  • Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, et al. Ginger treatment of hypereesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 38(1990):19-24.
  • Gagandeep, Dhanalakshmi S, Mendiz E, Rao AR, Kale RK. Chemopreventive effects of Cuminum cyminum in chemically induced forestomach and uterine cervix tumors in murine model systems. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(2):171-80.
  • Genet S, Kale RK, Baquer NZ. Alterations in antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rat tissues: effect of vanadate and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum). Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Jul;236(1-2):7-12.
  • Gray AM, Flatt PR. Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of the traditional anti- diabetic plant Coriandrum sativum (coriander). Br J Nutr 1999 Mar;81(3):203-9.
  • Gururaj A, Kelakavadi M, Venkatesh D et al. Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Oct 4;297(4):934.
  • Haddad JJ. Redox regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 30;296(4):847-56. Erratum in: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Feb 7;301(2):625..
  • Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol 1999 Jun;86(6):985-90.
  • Han SS, Keum YS, Chun KS, Surh YJ. Suppression of phorbol ester-induced NF-kappaB activation by capsaicin in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2002 Aug;25(4):475-9.
  • Han SS, Keum YS, Seo HJ, Chun KS, Lee SS, Surh YJ. Capsaicin suppresses phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-kappaB/Rel and AP-1 transcription factors in mouse epidermis. Cancer Lett. 2001 Mar 26;164(2):119-26.
  • Haraguchi H, Saito T, Ishikawa H, Date H, Kataoka S, Tamura Y, Mizutani K. Antiperoxidative components in Thymus vulgaris. Planta Med. 1996 Jun;62(3):217-21.
  • Haraguchi H, Saito T, Okamura N, Yagi A. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and superoxide generation by diterpenoids from Rosmarinus officinalis. Planta Med. 1995 Aug;61(4):333-6.
  • Hidaka H, Ishiko T, Furunashi T et al. Curcumin inhibits interleukin 8 production and enhances interleukin 8 receptor expression on the cell surface:impacgt on human pancrreatic carcinoma cell growth by autocrine regulation. Cancer 2002 Sep 15;96(6):1206-14.
  • Hitokoto H, Morozumi S, Wauke T, Sakai S, Kurata H. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol 1980 Apr;39(4):818-22.
  • Hu Z, Yang X, Ho PC, Chan SY, Heng PW, Chan E, Duan W, Koh HL, Zhou S. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review. Drugs. 2005;65(9):1239-82. Review.
  • Huang CD, Tliba O, Panettieri RA Jr, Amrani Y. Bradykinin induces interleukin-6 production in human airway smooth muscle cells: modulation by Th2 cytokines and dexamethasone. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Mar;28(3):330-8.
  • Impari-Radosevich J, Deas S, Polansky MM et al. Regulatino of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon:implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signaling. Horm Res 1998 Sep;50(3):177-82.
  • Impari-Radosevich J, Deas S, Polansky MM et al. Regulatino of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon:implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signaling. Horm Res 1998 Sep;50(3):177-82.
  • Ippoushi K, Azuma K, Ito H, Horie H, Higashio H. [6]-Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci. 2003 Nov 14;73(26):3427-37. .
  • Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Ulloor JN. Influence of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc) on survival, glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mice after whole-body exposure to gamma radiation. Radiat Res. 2003 Nov;160(5):584-92.
  • Kalemba D, Kunicka A. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem. 2003 May;10(10):813-29. Review.
  • Kang BY, Chung SW, Chung W et al. Inhibition of interleukin-12 production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage by curcumin. Eur J Pharmacol 1999 Nov;384(2-3):191-5.
  • Kang BY, Song YJ, Kim KM et al. Curcumin inhibits Th1 cytokine profile in CD4+ T cells by suppressing interleukin-12 production in macrophages. Br J Pharmacol 1999 Sep;128(2):380-4.
  • Kaur C, Kapoor CH. Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2002 Feb;37(2):153.
  • Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine 2000 Mar;7(1):7-13.
  • Khajuria A, Zutshi U, Bedi KL. Permeability characteristics of piperine on oral absorption--an active alkaloid from peppers and a bioavailability enhancer. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998 Jan;36(1):46-50.
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.
  • Khan N, Sharma S, Sultana S. Nigella sativa (black cumin) ameliorates potassium bromate-induced early events of carcinogenesis: diminution of oxidative stress. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Apr;22(4):193-203.
  • Kihara N, de la Fuente SG, Fujino K, Takahashi T, Pappas TN, Mantyh CR. Vanilloid receptor-1 containing primary sensory neurones mediate dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis in rats. Gut. 2003 May;52(5):713-9.
  • Kikuzaki H, Kawai Y, Nakatani N. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging active compounds from greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2001 Apr;47(2):167-71.
  • Kim DO, Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jun 19;50(13):3713-7.
  • Kiuchi F, et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40 (1992):387-91.
  • Kulevanova S, Kaftandzieva A, Dimitrovska A, et al. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of essential oils of several Macedonian Thymus L. species (Lamiaceae). Boll Chim Farm 2000 Nov-2000 Dec 31;139(6):276-80.
  • Kwak JY. A capsaicin-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, reduces inflammation-induced hyperalgesic responses in the rat: evidence for an endogenous capsaicin-like substance. Neuroscience 1998 Sep;86(2):619-26.
  • Lagouri V, Boskou D. Nutrient antioxidants in oregano. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1996 Nov;47(6):493-7.
  • Lambert JD, Hong J, Kim DH, Mishin VM, Yang CS. Piperine enhances the bioavailability of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice. J Nutr. 2004 Aug;134(8):1948-52.
  • Lambert RJ, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas GJ. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol 2001 Sep;91(3):453-62.
  • Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Feb;16(2):197-205.
  • Li D, Zimmerman TL, Thevananther S, Lee HY, Kurie JM, Karpen SJ. Interleukin-1 beta-mediated suppression of RXR:RAR transactivation of the Ntcp promoter is JNK-dependent. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 30;277(35):31416-22. Epub 2002 Jun 24.
  • Lim GP, Chu T, Yang F, et al. The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse. J Neurosci 2001 Nov 1;21(21):8370-7.
  • Madar Z, Stark AH. New legume sources as therapeutic agents. Br J Nutr. 2002 Dec;88 Suppl 3:S287-92. Review.
  • Malencic D, Gasic O, Popovic M, Boza P. Screening for antioxidant properties of Salvia reflexa hornem. Phytother Res 2000 Nov;14(7):546-8.
  • Martinez-Tome M, Jimenez AM, Ruggieri S, et al. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean spices compared with common food additives. J Food Prot 2001 Sep;64(9):1412-9.
  • Meeker HG, Linke HA. The antibacterial action of eugenol, thyme oil, and related essential oils used in dentistry. Compendium 1988 Jan;9(1):32, 34-5, 38 passim.
  • Mitchell JA. Role of nitric oxide in the dilator actions of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the rabbit coronary circulation. Neuropeptides 1997 Aug;31(4):333-8.
  • Mittal R, Gupta RL. In vitro antioxidant activity of piperine. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;22(5):271-4.
  • Mujumdar AM, Dhuley JN, Deshmukh VK, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of piperine. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1990 Jun;43(3):95-100.
  • Mujumdar AM, Dhuley JN, Deshmukh VK, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of piperine. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1990 Jun;43(3):95-100.
  • Murcia MA, Egea I, Romojaro F, Parras P, Jimenez AM, Martinez-Tome M. Antioxidant evaluation in dessert spices compared with common food additives. Influence of irradiation procedure. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Apr 7;52(7):1872-81. 
  • Nair S, Nagar R, Gupta R. Antioxidant phenolics and flavonoids in common Indian foods. J Assoc Physicians India. 1998 Aug;46(8):708-10.
  • Nakamura K, Yasunaga Y, Segawa T et al. Curcumin down-regulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol 2002 Oct;21(4):825-30.
  • Natarajan C, Bright JJ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists inhibit experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by blocking IL-2 prodeuction, IL-12 signaling and Th1 differentiation. Genes Immun 2002 Apr;3(2):59-70.
  • Oh GS, Pae HO, Seo WG, Kim NY, Pyun KH, Kim IK, Shin M, Chung HT. Capsazepine, a vanilloid receptor antagonist, inhibits the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages through the inactivation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Apr;1(4):777-84.
  • Olszewska M, Glowacki R, Wolbis M, Bald E. Quantitative determination of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Prunus spinosa L. Acta Pol Pharm 2001 May-2001 Jun 30;58(3):199-203.
  • Opalchenova G, Obreshkova D. Comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from Ocimum basilicum L.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas by usi. J Microbiol Methods. Jul;54(1):105-10.
  • Orafidiya LO, Oyedele AO, Shittu AO, Elujoba AA. The formulation of an effective topical antibacterial product containing Ocimum gratissimum leaf essential oil. Int J Pharm 2001 Aug 14;224(1-2):177-83.
  • Otsuka H, Fujioka S, Komiya T, et al. [Studies on anti-inflammatory agents. VI. Anti-inflammatory constituents of Cinnamomum sieboldii Meissn (author's transl)]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1982 Jan;102(2):162-72.
  • Ouattara B, Simard RE, Holley RA, et al. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int J Food Microbiol 1997 Jul 22;37(2-3):155-62.
  • Pandian RS, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P. Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Aug;81(3):393-7.
  • Parfk SY, Kim DS. Discovery of natural products from Curcuma longa that protects cells from beta-amyloid insult: a drug discovery effort against Alzherimer's disease. J Nat Prod 2002 Sep;65(9):1227-31.
  • Patel PS, Varney ML, Dave BJ, Singh RK. Regulation of constitutive and induced NF-kappaB activation in malignant melanoma cells by capsaicin modulates interleukin-8 production and cell proliferation. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002 Apr;22(4):427-35.
  • Perry EK, Pickering AT, Wang WW, Houghton P, Perry NS. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence. J Altern Complement Med. 1998 Winter;4(4):419-28. Review.
  • Perry NS, Houghton PJ, Theobald A, Jenner P, Perry EK. In-vitro inhibition of human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase by salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil and constituent terpenes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;52(7):895-902. Erratum in: J Pharm Pharmacol 2000 Dec;52(12):203.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.
  • Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48.
  • Quale JM, Landman D, Zaman MM, et al. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis. Am J Chin Med 1996;24(2):103-9.
  • Quale JM, Landman D, Zaman MM, et al. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis. Am J Chin Med 1996;24(2):103-9.
  • Rasooli I, Mirmostafa SA. Bacterial susceptibility to and chemical composition of essential oils from Thymus kotschyanus and Thymus persicus. J Agric Food Chem 2003 Apr 9;51(8):2200-5.
  • Salh B, Assi K, Templeman V, Parhar K, Owen D, Gomez-Munoz A, Jacobson K. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. Jul;285(1):G235-43. Epub 2003 Mar 13.
  • Selvendiran K, Prince Vijeya Singh J, Sakthisekaran D. In vivo effect of piperine on serum and tissue glycoprotein levels in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun 20; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Selvendiran K, Thirunavukkarasu C, Singh JP, Padmavathi R, Sakthisekaran D. Chemopreventive effect of piperine on mitochondrial TCA cycle and phase-I and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Mar;271(1-2):101-6.
  • Shah BH, Nawaz Z, Pertani SA, et al. Inhibitory effect of curcumin, a food spice from turmeric, on platelet- activating factor- and arachidonic acid-mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of thromboxane formation and Ca2+ signa. Biochem Pharmacol 1999 Oct 1;58(7):1167-72.
  • Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998 May;64(4):353-6.
  • Singh A, Singh SP, Bamezai R. Modulatory potential of clocimum oil on mouse skin papillomagenesis and the xenobiotic detoxication system. Food Chem Toxicol 1999 Jun;37(6):663-70.
  • Singh A, Singh SP, Bamezai R. Modulatory potential of clocimum oil on mouse skin papillomagenesis and the xenobiotic detoxication system. Food Chem Toxicol 1999 Jun;37(6):663-70.
  • Singh G, Kapoor IP, Pandey SK et al. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices. Phytother Res 2002 Nov;16(7):680-2.
  • Singh S, Natarajan K, Aggarwal BB. Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a potent inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B activation by diverse agents. J Immunol. 1996 Nov 15;157(10):4412-20.
  • Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Med Hypothesis 29 (1989):25-28.
  • Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders. Med Hypothesis 39(1992):342-8.
  • Sunila ES, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. and piperine J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):339-46.
  • Surh YJ, Han SS, Keum YS, Seo HJ, Lee SS. Inhibitory effects of curcumin and capsaicin on phorbol ester-induced activation of eukaryotic transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1. Biofactors. 2000;12(1-4):107-12.
  • Tabak M, Armon R, Potasman I, Neeman I. In vitro inhibition of Heliobacter pylori by extracts of thyme. J Appl Bacteriol. 1996 Jun;80(6):667-72.
  • Takacsova M, Pribela A, Faktorova M. Study of the antioxidative effects of thyme, sage, juniper and oregano. Nahrung 1995;39(3):241-3.
  • Takenaga M, Hirai A, Terano T, et al. In vitro effect of cinnamic aldehyde, a main component of Cinnamomi Cortex, on human platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism. J Pharmacobiodyn 1987 May;10(5):201-8.
  • Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV, Viswanathan P. Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity. Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):737-43.
  • Uma Devi P. Radioprotective, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of the Indian holy basil, Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi). Indian J Exp Biol 2001 Mar;39(3):185-90.
  • Valenzuela A, Sanhueza J, Nieto S. Cholesterol oxidation: health hazard and the role of antioxidants in prevention. Biol Res. 2003;36(3-4):291-302. Review.
  • Valero M, Salmeron MC. Antibacterial activity of 11 essential oils against Bacillus cereus in tyndallized carrot broth. Int J Food Microbiol. Aug 15;85(1-2):73-81.
  • VanderEnde DS, Morrow JD. Release of markedly increased quantities of prostaglandin D2 from the skin in vivo in humans after the application of cinnamic aldehyde. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001 Jul;45(1):62-7.
  • Vrinda B, Uma Devi P. Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin. Mutat Res 2001 Nov 15;498(1-2):39-46.
  • Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Nov;11(11):783-9.
  • Wills RB, Scriven FM, Greenfield H. Nutrient composition of stone fruit (Prunus spp.) cultivars: apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach and plum. J Sci Food Agric 1983 Dec;34(12):1383-9.
  • Wuthi-udomler M, Grisanapan W, Luanratana O, Caichompoo W. Antifungal activity of Curcuma longa grown in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2000;31 Suppl 1:178-82.
  • Youdim KA, Deans SG. Beneficial effects of thyme oil on age-related changes in the phospholipid C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of various rat tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Apr 19;1438(1):140-6.
  • Zeng HH, Tu PF, Zhou K, Wang H, Wang BH, Lu JF. Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1094-8.
  • Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Anethofuran, carvone, and limonene: potential cancer chemopreventive agents from dill weed oil and caraway oil. Planta Med 1992 Aug;58(4):338-41.
  • Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J Agric Food Chem 2002;49:5165-70.
  • Zoladz P, Raudenbush B, Lilley S. Cinnamon perks performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences, held in Sarasota, FL, April 21-25, 2004.
  • Zoladz P, Raudenbush B, Lilley S. Cinnamon perks performance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences, held in Sarasota, FL, April 21-25, 2004.

Special Offers • Recipes
Nutrition & Eco News
RECENT ARTICLES
For orders, questions, or assistance call 800-608-4825 any day or time. © 2014 Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics, Inc. All Rights Reserved